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The Factors Affecting the Price of Lithium Batteries

Time:2021/2/14Posted:VTC Power Co.,Ltd

The lithium-ion batteries prices vary greatly, do you know what factors affecting the prices of lithium batteries?

1.   Lithium battery price composition

The price of a lithium battery is mainly composed of three major components: the battery cell, the protective plate, and the shell. At the same time, the power consumption, the current of the electric appliance, the material of the connection sheet between the cells (conventional nickel sheet, molded nickel sheet, the selection of copper-nickel composite sheets, jumpers, etc.) will affect the cost. Different connectors (such as aviation plugs, ranging from several Dollars to hundreds of Dollars) may also have a greater impact on the cost, and there are differences. The PACK process will also affect the cost.

2.   Factors affecting the price of lithium batteries

1) The material of batteries

First, the material of batteries will affect the price of the entire lithium battery. According to different cathode materials, lithium batteries have different cells such as lithium manganese oxide (3.6V), lithium cobalt oxide (3.7V/3.8V), lithium nickel cobalt manganese oxide (commonly known as ternary, 3.6V), lithium iron phosphate (3.2V), and lithium titanate (2.3V/2.4V). The cells, with different materials, have different voltage platforms, safety factors, cycles of use, energy density ratios, and operating temperatures.

Second, the prices of batteries of different brands will also vary greatly. The lithium battery prices ranges to the blow aspects: special batteries (including ultra-low temperature battery, ultra-high temperature battery, ultra-high-rate battery, special-shaped battery). Japanese Chinese Series Battery (Panasonic, Sanyo, Sony), Korean Series Battery (Samsung, LG), Chinese Series Battery (Lishen, BAK, BYD, CATL). Different brands of batteries with same materials also vary largely according to their quality (battery safety, consistency, stability).

2) Requirements and design of lithium battery PCM

PCM design can be divided into: basic protection, communication, BMS

Basic protection: basic protection includes overcharge, overdischarge, overcurrent and short circuit protection, and over temperature protection can be added according to product requirements

Communication: The communication protocol can be divided into I2C, RS485, RS232, CANBUS, HDQ, SMBUS, etc. There is also a simple power display, which can be indicated by a power meter and LED.

BMS: BMS is the short name of BATTERY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM, commonly known as battery nanny or battery housekeeper, mainly for the intelligent management and maintenance of each battery unit, to prevent the battery from overcharging and overcharging. Discharge, extend battery life, monitor battery status. Its main functions include: real-time monitoring of battery physical parameters; battery state estimation; online diagnosis and early warning; charge, discharge and precharge control; balance management and thermal management, etc. The secondary system is mostly used in electric vehicle batteries.

3) Demand and design of lithium battery casing

Lithium battery shell materials include: PVC heat sealing, plastic shell, metal shell.

PVC heat-sealing: The shell encapsulation of the battery pack depends mainly on the requirements of the customer's products. Generally, the PVC heat-sealing encapsulation is applied to a small number of battery cells in series and lighter weight (≤2kg). Furthermore, for battery packs weights than 1kg, it is necessary to add a fixing bracket between the cells, and a glass fiber board to the periphery.

Plastic Shell: After the different battery packs are shaped, the plastic shell mold needs to be produced. The mold cost is a little expensive. In the early stage of development, the product has not been finalized, and the prototype shell can be used for proofing (the strength of the prototype is not as strong as the mold products). Different plastic shell materials and processes (especially with three-proof requirements) will also affect the cost.

Metal Shell: Before the product is finalized or when the quantity demand is not large, it is recommended to use sheet metal sample preparation, rather than metal shell. The main reason is that the sample preparation has shorter delivery time. If the batch is large, it is also recommended to make mold. Waterproof requirements for metal shells will also greatly affect the cost. The metal shells with special materials (such as titanium alloys, etc.), has higher cost.

The cost of a lithium battery is mainly composed of batteries, PCM, and structural parts, plus the PACK costs, aging costs, and company management costs. At the same time, due to the different technical difficulty of product requirements, purchase amount, and defective rate, the price of lithium batteries will vary greatly!

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